18, 32, 44–46, 108, 123, 125, 128, 191–241; Ebn al-Faqih, p. 209; Ebn Ḥawqal, pp. Morte et enterrée à Qom, très pieuse elle sera vénérée comme sainte, car dans l’Islam, c’est la tradition pour les femmes parentes d’un des imams duodécimains. [Modifier] Comprendre Qom est l'un des villes les plus saintes de l'Iran et le Moyen-Orient et est ancrée dans des siècles d'histoire. Qom (Persian: قم ‎ ()) is the seventh largest metropolis and also the seventh largest city in Iran. Within the known 18 tax figures ranging over 160 years there are great differences and the tax figures vary from 8 million to 2 million dirhams with a mean value at around 3 million. EMD built No.60-900 from 1976 at Qom station in November 2005 Return to the Iran Gallery Index page Beirut (AsiaNews) – Iran will soon inform the International Atomic Energy Agency of a... www.apersianrug.com More examples: www.jozan.com TURKISH Hereke Saba Qom FC Qom Qom est la deuxième ville sainte du pays. 228–31, Ebn al-Aṯir, XII, p. 419; Rašid al-Din Fażl-Allāh, 1957, p. 63; Jovayni, pp. It was caused by the refusal of the caliph Al-Ma'mun to lower the yearly tax assessment as he had done in Ray. 13, 27, 36–37, 53–56; Drechsler, pp. Des conflits s'ensuivirent entre les armées d'invasion arabes et les résidents de la zone. Qom en tant que ville existait déjà à l'époque pré-islamique. Qom has developed into a lively industrial centre owing in part to its proximity to Tehran. Liste de hauts-personnages du clergé de Qom, Notices dans des dictionnaires ou encyclopédies généralistes, http://www.al-shia.com/html/eng/ser/ulama/ola-khon_h.htm, http://www.al-shia.com/html/eng/ser/ulama/ola-hashemi_h.htm, http://www.al-shia.com/html/eng/ser/ulama/ola-taher_h.htm, http://www.al-shia.com/html/eng/ser/ulama/ola-sobh_h.htm, http://www.al-shia.com/html/eng/ser/ulama/ola-kash_h.htm, http://www.al-shia.com/html/eng/ser/ulama/ola-eshteh_h.htm, http://www.al-shia.com/html/eng/ser/ulama/ola-mareft_h.htm, http://www.al-shia.com/html/eng/ser/ulama/ola-alav_h.htm, http://www.al-shia.com/html/eng/ser/ulama/ola-kani_h.htm, http://www.al-shia.com/html/eng/ser/ulama/ola-taj_h.htm, http://www.al-shia.com/html/eng/ser/ulama/ola-madhahiri.html, http://www.al-shia.com/html/eng/ser/ulama/ola-salehi_h.htm, http://www.al-shia.com/html/eng/ser/ulama/ola-roh2_h.htm, http://www.al-shia.com/html/eng/ser/ulama/ola-rasti_h.htm, http://www.al-shia.com/html/eng/ser/ulama/ola-kharazi_h.htm, http://www.al-shia.com/html/eng/ser/ulama/ola-moha_h.htm, http://www.al-shia.com/html/eng/ser/ulama/ola-gram_h.htm, Nucléaire: De nouvelles centrifugeuses auraient été installées en Iran, Société des maîtres islamiques de séminaires de Qom, Office de propagation islamique des séminaires, https://fr.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Qom&oldid=175898998, Page avec coordonnées similaires sur Wikidata, Page utilisant une présentation en colonnes avec un nombre fixe de colonnes, Article contenant un appel à traduction en anglais, Article avec une section vide ou incomplète, Article de Wikipédia avec notice d'autorité, Page pointant vers des dictionnaires ou encyclopédies généralistes, Page pointant vers des bases relatives aux beaux-arts, Page pointant vers des bases relatives à la musique, Portail:Iran et monde iranien/Articles liés, Portail:Religions et croyances/Articles liés, licence Creative Commons attribution, partage dans les mêmes conditions, comment citer les auteurs et mentionner la licence. 271, 743–45, Ebn Aʿṯam, I, p. 201, II, pp. In 387/997, Qom became involved in internal Buyid quarrels and was subsequently unsuccessfully besieged. En mitraillant les manifestants, l’armée donne ses premiers martyrs à l’insurrection[2]. From 442/1050–51 on, the city was under Seljuk rule and nothing is known about its fate until 487/1094. À la fin du XIVe siècle, la ville fut mise à sac par Tamerlan et les habitants furent massacrés. 154–60, Qomi, pp. [citation needed], The city of Qom began another era of prosperity in the Qajar era. [63] However, attacking a nuclear facility so close to a city considered so holy in Shia Islam brings concern of a potential risk of a Shiite religious response. Qom must have expanded during this period, but precise reasons for its prosperity are not known. [61] In January 2012 the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) announced that Iran had started producing uranium enriched up to 20% for medical purposes and that material "remains under the agency's containment and surveillance.”[62] Iranian authorities state the facility is built deep in a mountain because of repeated threats by Israel to attack such facilities, which Israel believes can be used to produce nuclear weapons. Fatima, en route pour rendre visite à son frère l'imam Reza (huitième imam des Chiites), y meurt en effet en 816. Mais, avant de devenir la ville sainte ṣafawide, Qom était surtout renommée pour ses écoles théologiques et pour la nature turbulente de ses habitants (refus de payer l'impôt, conflit avec Ispahan, etc.). In 418/1027–28, Qom fell under the rule of Šahryuš from the Kakuyid dynasty and a few years later (1030–40) it became part of the Ghaznavid domain. 232–41, 308–12, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Major Agglomerations of the World - Population Statistics and Maps", "On Persian pilgrimages, Pakistanis and Indians reconnect with Iran", "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1385 (2006)", The holy city of Qom is the pole of Shia world. [39] In 881–82 Qom was occupied by the Turkish military leader Edgu Tegin (Arabic: Yadkutakin b. Asātakin or Aḏkutakin), who tried to collect the tax arrears for seven years which partially ruined the guarantors (some of whom are known) of these taxes. Its theological center and the Fatima Masumeh Shrine are prominent features of Qom. Khaosan Tokyo Kabuki is a cozy hostel in the middle of Asakusa . Qom gained special attention and gradually developed due to its religious shrine during the Saffavid dynasty. L'architecture Islámica, l'intérieur du tombeau,Fatima Masuma,ville sainte,Qom, Iran L'architecture islamique. [citation needed], As a center of religious learning Qom fell into decline for about a century from 1820 to 1920, but had a resurgence when Shaykh Abdul Karim Haeri Yazdi accepted an invitation to move from Sultanabad (now called Arak, Iran), where he had been teaching, to Qom. The names of those involved have survived. ", "Cries of 'hold me back' may lead Israel to strike Iran", "Qom Concerned over New Intelligence Appointments", List of cities, towns and villages in Qom Province, Traditional Persian residential architecture, Traditional water sources of Persian antiquity, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Qom&oldid=994128714, Pages with non-numeric formatnum arguments, Articles lacking reliable references from February 2017, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Persian-language text, Articles with incomplete citations from February 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2009, Articles needing additional references from January 2016, All articles needing additional references, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, Articles with incomplete citations from September 2018, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Conseils d'experts pour visiter Qom en Iran , préparez au mieux votre séjour ! 289, 332–33, 551, XI, p. 237; ʿAbd-al-Jalil Qazvini, pp. Vivre dans la ville sainte de Qom. La situation de la ville Qom est entre Téhéran et Ispahan alors la majorité des voyageurs la visitent sur cette route. At the same time, the Fatima sanctuary was enlarged and the number of sayyeds residing in Qom reached a considerable number. The murder of Samuel Paty (French pronunciation: [samɥɛl pati]), a French middle-school teacher, took place on 16 October 2020 in Conflans-Sainte-Honorine, a suburb of Paris.Paty was killed and beheaded by an Islamist terrorist.. [38], The first Friday mosque in Qom was built in 878–79 on the site of a fire temple, although there are also confusing reports concerning a possible earlier Friday mosque. En 645, Abou Moussa al-Achari déploya des forces sous son commandement dans la région. Madāʾen) and consisted of several villages and little towns with Abaraštejān, Mamajjān and Jamkarān as the bigger settlements that were loosely connected by defense installations. qum silk carpet Qom gained additional prosperity when oil was discovered at Sarajeh near the city in 1956 and a large refinery was built between Qom and Tehran. Two Friday mosques seem to have existed in Seljuk times: the old one was renovated and a new one, located outside of the town area, was built in 528/1133–34 by the order of Sultan Togrel II (Persian: سلطان طغرل دوم). [24] The wider surroundings of Qom also contain numerous traces from palaces, religious, military and administrative buildings. Il est exact que la population est accueillante, aime parler et échanger des idées. Qom (en persan: قم) est une ville sainte entre Téhéran et Ispahan. It remains unclear who the defenders of Qom were; probably fleeing Sasanian nobles and local soldiers returning from the great battles against the Arabs formed the core of the resistance. Avec plus de 100 000 étudiants en sciences religieuses, elle est également devenue un centre de savoir religieux qui s’est développé à partir des années 1920, puis après l’avènement de la République islamique. À l'heure actuelle, de nombreux hauts dignitaires religieux de classement de l'islam chiite à Qom vivent. 194–98, Qomi, pp. All new items; Books; Journal articles; Manuscripts; Topics. The recently published results of the excavations carried out in 1955 by Iranian archeologists have, however, revived the old thesis of a Seleucid religious building. L'ayatollah Khomeini dans la ville sainte de Qom le 29 mars 1979, Iran. L’article intitulé Shahr-e moghaddas-e Qom dar gozar-e târikh (La ville sainte de Qom au cours de l’histoire), consulté sur le site Andisheh Qom rattaché au Howzeh Elmieh le 5 oct 2011 à l’adresse www.andisheqom.com. Most of the seminaries teach their students modern social sciences and Western thought as well as traditional religious studies. The majority of these non-Muslims were Zoroastrians, who made their living mostly as farmers. En mai 2012, l'Agence internationale de l'énergie atomique (AIEA) a annoncé que 350 nouvelles centrifugeuses ont été installées depuis février dans le centre iranien d'enrichissement d'uranium de Fordow[26]. Ḏemmis, or followers of other revealed religions (Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians) must have lived in the city, too, as the payment of poll tax (jezya) indicates, although their number can only be very roughly estimated at a few thousand at the end of the 9th century and must have shrunk drastically in the 10th century. Qom. Fātimah bint Mūsā died while following her brother to Khorasan, a region in northern Iran. 167–68; Bayhaqi, pp. 52; Hakemi, pp. See more ideas about Beautiful mosques, Persian architecture, Islamic architecture. Nov 18, 2018 - Explore jool's board "Qom" on Pinterest. 69–74, Qomi, pp. Qom is the capital of Qom Province.It is located 140 km (87 mi) to the south of Tehran. [citation needed], The city suffered heavy damage again during the Afghan invasions, resulting in consequent severe economic hardships. 109–10, 217–18; Drechsler, pp. Information exists concerning taxes for the post-Mongolian period. Qom (en persan: قم) est une ville sainte entre Téhéran et Ispahan. The air-conditioned rooms are equipped with a flat-screen TV and en-suite bathroom.The property is 300m from Bendemeer MRT Station and 650m from Lavender MRT Station. 1 / 4. Lire la suite: Agence France-Presse » The city is the largest center for Shi'a scholarship in the world, and is a significant destination of pilgrimage, with around twenty million pilgrims visiting the city every year, the majority being Iranians but also other Shi'a Muslims from all around the world. Finalement, en 1793, Qom passa sous le contrôle de Agha Mohammad Chah. [29] The existence of an urban settlement in the Sasanian epoch is furthermore verified by Middle Persian sources (literary sources, inscriptions, and seals) that mention in the time of Shapur I and Kawād I the names Godmān/Gomān and Ērān Win(n)ārd Kawād, both of which could be identified as Qom. Le chemin de Qom BENYAMIN Bernard, CHATENAY Philippe by BENYAMIN Bernard, CHATENAY Philippe and a great selection of related books, art and collectibles available now at AbeBooks.com. Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. [41] An administrative peculiarity of Qom was put to an end at about the same time, to wit the independent appointment of judges through the Arab inhabitants of Qom until the time of al-Moktafi, which, together with the dispatch of a joint Arab-Persian delegation to the vizier Ḥamid ibn Abbas indicate the end of the elevated position of the Arabs in Qom. Selon les responsables iraniens, l'uranium n'y sera enrichi qu'à hauteur de 5 %, mais l'installation permet un enrichissement à 90 % permettant la production d'armes nucléaires[25]. [60], The Hawzah (a short form of al-Hawzah al-Ilmiyya), which presently consists of over 200 education and research centres and organisations, catering for over 40,000 scholars and students from over 80 List of sovereign states. Peu à peu les habitants de Qom construisirent un sanctuaire autour du cimetière, puis un dôme. 538, 542; Ḥamd-Allāh Mostawfi, 1919, pp. Touch the room name for details, inclusions, occupancy and minimum stay [48], Qom was then in a difficult economical and social position. A Qom, ville sainte iranienne, la modernité bouscule "en surface" Lire l'article complet. Qom (en persan : قم) est une ville d'Iran.Située à 150 km au sud-ouest de Téhéran, c'est la capitale de la province de Qom. 41–45; Drechsler, pp. [64], Qom space center is one of the two places where the Iranian Space Agency is launching its suborbital Shahab-3 ballistic missiles, the other being the Emamshahr space center. The agricultural situation is described as flourishing with a variety of cultivated plants and a good supply of water, and legends indicate the use of deposits of mineral resources. The most interesting building from an archeological point of view is the Qalʿa-ye Doḵtar in Qom itself, which was long thought to have served religious purposes, while more recent research points to an administrative use. Pendant le califat de Omar ibn al-Khattâb, la région de Qom tomba aux mains des armées de l'Islam. He destroyed parts of Qom and handed over a wanted rebel to caliphal authorities under Al-Moʿtasem. Another important Shia family was that of the Daʿwidār (Persian: دعوی‌دار), whose members were judges (Arabic: قاضی) in town, which indicates the transformation of Qom from a town governed by the Sunnis to a completely Shai domain. Easy access from any stations in Asakusa, Especially it is very close to Sensoji Temple and Kaminarimon. 124–31, Qomi, pp. — The mayor of Windsor, Ont., has apologized for breaking COVID-19 rules when dining out with seven other people last week. Un premier site secret d'enrichissement avait été découvert à Natanz sept ans plus tôt. Au jour d’aujourd’hui, la ville compte bien 52 écoles de théologie, enveloppées d’une aura à la fois séraphique et martiale. 132–33; Drechsler, pp. The Ašʿaris were also the proprietors of the water rights, which were safeguarded in the water authority (divān-e āb) that regulated the water shares. La Mecque (Arabie saoudite), ville la plus sainte de l'islam. À 150 km au sud de la capitale, vous arrivez dans la ville sainte de Qom. Please enter key search to display results. Aujourd'hui, Qom compte parmi les centres les plus importants du chiisme, à la fois en Iran et dans le monde. All Categories; Metaphysics and Epistemology 37-Bazar Ali Qapu em Isfahan Saba Qom FC O clérigo Moshen Rabbani concede entrevista em Qom Qom Qom est la deuxième ville sainte du pays. Altogether he stayed in power only for two years before he had to return to Baghdad. Qom's proximity to Tehran has allowed the clerical establishment easy access to monitor the affairs and decisions of state. 422–33; Mostawfi, pp. Directly south of Qom lie the towns of Delijan, Mahallat, Naraq, Pardisan City, Kahak, and Jasb. Sultans reportedly visited the sanctuary (although no specific sultan is mentioned by name) and in general no religiously motivated punitive action against Qom is known to have taken place. 204, 357–58, 429–30, X, pp. A Qom, ville sainte du nord de l'Iran, l'issue du double scrutin prévu vendredi ne fait presque aucun doute: dans ce bastion conservateur, les paroles du guide suprême Ali Khamenei sont d'or et, comme lui, on dit non à "l'infiltration" occidentale. Durant l'invasion Mongole de la Perse, la ville connut une destruction importante, mais après que la dynastie mongole régnante, aussi connue sous le nom Ilkhanat, se fut convertie à l'Islam pendant le règne de Oldjaïtou (en persan : Muhammed Kharbenach) la ville reçut une attention spéciale, lui permettant de revivre une fois de plus. 181–91, Ebn Ḥawqal, p. 362; Drechsler, p. 198, n. 956, Qomi, pp. À l'époque des Seldjoukides, la cité fleurit de nouveau. [43] In the years 301/913–14 to 315/927 the people of Qom had, besides another tax assessment (meanwhile the eighth), a caliphal intervention that resulted in the appointment of a governor to stabilize the administrative grip over the region. 28, 73–74, Balāḏori, pp. Avoir vingt ans au pays des ayatollahs : vivre dans la ville sainte de Qom. 160–64, Ṭabari, III, p. 2284, tr., XXXVIII, pp. Photo MOHAMMAD ALI MARIZAD / AFP / Getty Images. Le 21 septembre 2009, l'Iran déclare à l'AIEA un site construit près de la ville de Qom, à Fordow ((en) en anglais : Fordu (en)). Beginning in 316/928 Qom fell into the sphere of interest of Daylami warlords and was relieved from the direct authority of the caliph, although it changed hands several times between 928 and 943. 28–29, 31, 34, 38–39, 42, 56–59, 101–90, 242, 253, 262; Balāḏori, p. 314; Yaʿqubi, p. 274; Ebn al-Faqih, pp. Comprendre []. 214, 219–220; Modarresi Ṭabāṭabāʾi, 1971, p. 117; idem, 1976, I, p. 18; Drechsler, pp. 47, 51, 163–64, 182, 191, 220–21, 229–30, 280, 430, 437, 494, 643; Abu’l-Rajāʾ Qomi, pp. Home / Uncategorized / qum silk carpet. WINDSOR, Ont. 148–54, Qomi, pp. 220–28, Ebn al-Aṯir, X, p. 118, XII, p. 317; Abu’l-Rajāʾ Qomi, p. 262; Modarresi Ṭabāṭabāʾi, 1971, pp. Qom est une des villes saintes du chiisme, puisque c'est le site où est enterrée Hazrat Fatimah Ma'soumeh, sœur de Ali ar-Rida (en persan Imam Reza, 789-816).La ville accueille la plus grande hawza d'Iran, qui égale en taille celle de Nadjaf en Irak. [49] The water supply seems to have been satisfactory and the Ashaaries seem to have undertaken continuous renovation works on the irrigation channels between 733 and 900. It is striking that the formerly dominant Ashaaries had lost their leading positions by the end of the 10th century. [4] Qom is the capital of Qom Province. En 1978, un article insultant envers l’ayatollah Khomeini paru dans la presse officielle provoque un mouvement de contestation. La ville de Qom connut de nouveau la prospérité à l'époque Qajar. Syntax; Advanced Search; New. At the 2016 census, its population was 1,201,158. 208–19, ʿAbd-al-Jalil Qazvini, pp. The largest decision of the evening related to finding a fix for storm water struggles in Wardsville, and council hopes that the Drainage Act can come into play to save the township some money on what would otherwise be a multi-million dollar project. The municipal central office is located on Saheli Street. 197–98; Drechsler, pp. The shrine of Fatimeh Masumeh, the sister of Imam Reza, is located in this city, which is considered by Shiʿa Muslims holy. Les plus visités sont : Le toit du grand bazar de Qom. Nel 1615 Samuel de Champlain ebbe l'idea di una nuova città sul fiume San Lorenzo, al fine di promuovere la religione cattolica fra gli indiani della Nuova Francia.I francesi vi si insediarono tuttavia soltanto il 17 maggio 1642, quando un gruppo di sacerdoti, religiose e coloni della società Notre-Dame de Montréal, guidati da Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve, fondarono il villaggio di Ville-Marie. The present town of Qom in Central Iran dates back to ancient times. … The place of her entombment developed from 869–70 into a building that was transformed over time into today's magnificent and economically important sanctuary. La configuration du site et sa taille ne sont pas selon le président américain compatible avec un usage civil[23]. Syntax; Advanced Search; New. The perpetrator, Abdoullakh Abouyedovich Anzorov, an 18-year-old Muslim Russian refugee of Chechen ethnicity, killed and beheaded Paty with a cleaver. Côté de la tombe de Fatima Masuma dans la ville sainte de Qom, en Iran Vista (22) | Galería de Arte Islámico y Fotografía 99–100, 105–06, 142–44, 164–65, 217–18; Ebn al-Aṯir, VIII, pp. The rigidly Sunni Seljuks seem to have practiced a pragmatic policy and one of the main sources of this time (ʿAbd-al-Jalil Qazvini) speaks of good relations between the famous vizier Nizam al-Mulk and Seljuk sultans on the one hand, and members of the local nobility on the other. 6 février 2019 à 5:07 AM. Mais les Britanniques et les Russes influèrent sur ce projet en mettant la pression sur Ahmad Chah Qadjar. Syntax; Advanced Search; New. Many Grand Ayatollahs possess offices in both Tehran and Qom; many people simply commute between the two cities as they are only 156 kilometres or 97 miles apart. 198–207, Qomi, pp. Qom n’est pas seulement la ville où résida longtemps Khomeyni, mais un centre de relance théologique contre le statu quo. The production of chairs, textiles, and saddle equipment indicates craftsmanship. These Alids descended from the Imams and were supported by pensions. [30] Altogether one can assume that Qom functioned as a small administrative unit throughout the whole Sasanian era. [9][10] Since the revolution, the clerical population has risen from around 25,000 to more than 45,000 and the non-clerical population has more than tripled to about 700,000. 22–23, 32, 37, 61, 62, 69–71, 74, 77, 82, 90, 137–38, Qomi, pp. As many as 331 male Alids lived in Qom in 988–89, and they produced a good number of community leaders and there is also mention of one prominent female ʿAlid besides Fātimah bint Mūsā. 23, 26–27, 32, 35–40, 42, 60, 167, 214, 216; Saʿidniā, pp. S'abonner à la Newsletter FranceSoir. In taxation Qom always followed the solar calendar with its own local variation, starting from the death of the Sasanian Yazdegerd III. Synonymes de "Ville sainte au Proche-Orient": Synonyme Nombre de lettres Definition; Hebron: 6 lettres: Autres synonymes possibles. The representative Aḥmad b. Esḥāq was at the same time administrator of the Fāṭema sanctuary and the agent (wakil) responsible for the pensions of the Alids. Après avoir été victorieux sur ses ennemis, le Shah Kadjar Fath Ali Chah Qadjar fit réparer le sépulcre et le mausolée de Hazrat Ma'sumeh, tel qu'il en avait fait le vœu. These Ashaaries originated in Yemen and the first important figure among them was the first conqueror of the area of Qom, the above-mentioned Abu Musa Ashaari. 35, 157–58, 163, 215; Najāši, pp. 192–93, Yaʿqubi, pp. Many houses inside the city as well as bridges and mills were ruined and the roads and agriculture were suffering from an insecure situation. Qom est une ville sainte, l’une des capitales spirituelles du chiisme, où les grands ayatollahs débattent et enseignent. Iran's Cultural Heritage Organization lists 195 sites of historical and cultural significance in Qom. The Seljuki did not occupy Qom at once but left the town and Jebāl in Kakuyid hands for ten years. A bazaar and bathhouses must have existed, too, as well as certain administrative buildings (prison, mint). [citation needed], On 19 February 2020, the Iranian Students News Agency reported that the first two cases of the COVID-19 pandemic in Iran were detected in Qom.[59]. 121–25; 136–37; Drechsler, pp. Son centre théologique (où les musulmans chiites viennent suivre les leçons de leurs maîtres : les ayatollahs) et le mausolée de Hazrat Ma'sumeh sont les caractéristiques essentielles de la capitale de la province de Qom. Apart from the Shia mainstream, other Shia sects existed in the city and one can also assume the presence of Sunnies. A Qom, ville sainte iranienne, la modernité bouscule "en surface" Quarante ans ont passé mais l'emprise de la Révolution islamique reste très forte à Qom, capitale religieuse de l'Iran, même si les signes d'une certaine modernité se multiplient dans la ville, comme un défi lancé au clergé chiite. A quelques heures de voiture au sud de la capitale Téhéran, Qom est l'une des grandes villes saintes de l'islam chiite. In these unstable political times, Qom was visited by the vizier of Al-Moʿtazed, Obayd-Allah ibn Solayman, and two tax assessments were organized. 1092–93, 1102, 1106, 1111; Modarresi Ṭabāṭabāʾi, 1983, p. 166; Drechsler, pp. Its true function is still a matter of dispute, but the contributions by Wolfram Kleiss point to a Parthian palace that served as a station on the nearby highway and was used until Sasanian times.[20]. Summer weather is very hot and essentially rainless, whilst in winter weather can vary from warm to – when Siberian air masses are driven south across the Elburz Mountains by blocking over Europe – frigid. Pendant son règne, le shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi a voulu faire de Qom une ville industrielle en exploitant les nappes de pétrole de cette région.