The raid was carried out through the normal chain of command, pursuant to directives and agreements then in force. are popular slogans among the so-called "Anti-Germans"—a small radical left-wing political movement in Germany and Austria. À 22h15, 800 bombardiers britanniques, avions descorte et de diversion convergeaient sur Dresde et larguaient des bombes incendiaires qui mettaient le feu à la ville dune extrémité à lautre. Les commémorations des bombardements de 1945 l’ont une nouvelle fois prouvé. The bombing of Dresden was a British-American aerial bombing attack on the city of Dresden, the capital of the German state of Saxony, during World War II. [92] Since 1989, despite extensive excavation for new buildings, no war-related bodies have been found. As one of the directors of the United States Strategic Bombing Survey, formed late in the war by the American Office of Strategic Services to assess the results of the aerial bombardments of Nazi Germany, he wrote: "The incredible cruelty of the attack on Dresden when the war had already been won—and the death of children, women, and civilians—that was extremely weighty and of no avail". The bombing of Dresden was a British-American aerial bombing attack on the city of Dresden, the capital of the German state of Saxony, during World War II.In four raids between 13 and 15 February 1945, 722 heavy bombers of the British Royal Air Force (RAF) and 527 of the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) dropped more than 3,900 tons of high-explosive bombs and incendiary devices on the city. Lire en ligne: Archives nationales du Royaume Uni. Gérard 17 février 2019 @ 18:26 Cette horreur venait après le bombardement de Coventry… Reply. [115][116], John Kenneth Galbraith was among those in the Roosevelt administration who had qualms about the bombing. One of the gifts they made to the project was an eight-metre high orb and cross made in London by goldsmiths Gant MacDonald, using medieval nails recovered from the ruins of the roof of Coventry Cathedral, and crafted in part by Alan Smith, the son of a pilot who took part in the raid. This is a doctrine to which I could never subscribe. To my mind we have absolutely no right to give them up unless it is certain that they will not have this effect. She carries a bundle in her arms. ... ever since the deliberate mass bombing of civilians in the second world war, and as a direct response to it, the international community has outlawed the practice. Longmate describes a 22 September 1941 memorandum prepared by the British Air Ministry's Directorate of Bombing Operations that puts numbers to this analysis (, *The number of bombers and tonnage of bombs are taken from a USAF document written in 1953 and classified secret until 1978 (, harv error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFGrayling2006 (, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (. [7] British historian Frederick Taylor wrote of the attacks: "The destruction of Dresden has an epically tragic quality to it. men lampen er lovlig og der bliver lavet en faktura pÅ kØbet hvor stelnummeret kommer til at stÅ pÅ. [62], Primary sources disagree as to whether the aiming point was the marshalling yards near the centre of the city or the centre of the built-up urban area. [130], The bombing of Dresden has been used by Holocaust deniers and pro-Nazi polemicists—most notably by British writer David Irving in his book The Destruction of Dresden—in an attempt to establish a moral equivalence between the war crimes committed by the Nazi government and the killing of German civilians by Allied bombing raids. Le bombardement qui ne « pouvait pas avoir lieu ». Three hundred and sixty heavy bombers (Lancasters and Halifaxes) bombed a synthetic oil plant in Böhlen, 60 miles (97 km) from Dresden, while de Havilland Mosquito medium bombers attacked Magdeburg, Bonn, Misburg near Hanover and Nuremberg. Cette tension politique éclipse les 25 000 victimes de la « tempête de feu », trois jours de bombardement au phosphore (du 13 au 15 février 1945) sur la Florence allemande, dont il ne restera plus que ruines. to take advantage of a large number of refugees, or purposely terrorize the German populace). [48], When Polish crews of the designated squadrons were preparing for the mission, the terms of the Yalta agreement were made known to them. Allied arguments centre around the existence of a local air defence system and additional ground defences the Germans were constructing in anticipation of Soviet advances. The fan-shaped area that was bombed was 1.25 miles (2.01 km) long, and at its extreme about 1.75 miles (2.82 km) wide. Several factors have made the bombing a unique point of contention and debate. "Le 7 mai 1945, juste avant la capitulation allemande, Patton eut une conférence en Autriche avec le Secrétaire américain à la Guerre Robert Patterson. [21], Plans for a large, intense aerial bombing of Berlin and the other eastern cities had been discussed under the code name Operation Thunderclap in mid-1944, but were shelved on 16 August. [29][30], On 31 January, Bottomley sent Portal a message saying a heavy attack on Dresden and other cities "will cause great confusion in civilian evacuation from the east and hamper movement of reinforcements from other fronts". Freeman Dyson, a British (and later American) physicist who had worked as a young man with RAF Bomber Command from July 1943 to the end of the war,[165] wrote in later years: "For many years I had intended to write a book on the bombing. She runs, she falls, and the child flies in an arc into the fire. [93] Seeking to establish a definitive casualty figure, in part to address propagandisation of the bombing by far-right groups, the Dresden city council in 2005 authorized an independent Historian's Commission (Historikerkommission) to conduct a new, thorough investigation, collecting and evaluating available sources. Au cours de la guerre froide, les préjugés idéologiques empêchèrent une étude objective du déroulement des événements. Amazon.in - Buy Dresde 1945 book online at best prices in india on Amazon.in. [6] A 1953 United States Air Force report defended the operation as the justified bombing of a strategic target, which they noted was a major rail transport and communication centre, housing 110 factories and 50,000 workers in support of the German war effort. [23], On 22 January 1945, the RAF director of bomber operations, Air Commodore Sydney Bufton, sent Deputy Chief of the Air Staff Air Marshal Sir Norman Bottomley a memorandum suggesting that what appeared to be a coordinated RAF air attack to aid the current Soviet offensive would have a detrimental effect on German morale. Sir Arthur Harris affirma que la décision avait été prise à un échelon très supérieur à lui[39]. Development of a German political response to the raid took several turns. The idea was that, as one building collapsed or filled with smoke, those using the basement as a shelter could knock the walls down and run into adjoining buildings. Køb PH 2/1 Bombardement Glas Overskærm - Louis Poulsen her. With the city on fire everywhere, those fleeing from one burning cellar simply ran into another, with the result that thousands of bodies were found piled up in houses at the end of city blocks. [7], As far as Dresden being a militarily significant industrial centre, an official 1942 guide described the German city as "... one of the foremost industrial locations of the Reich," and in 1944, the German Army High Command's Weapons Office listed 127 medium-to-large factories and workshops that supplied materiel to the military. [158] In 2010, several demonstrations by organizations opposing the far-right blocked a demonstration of far-right organizations. "Je sais que la destruction d’une ville aussi grande et splendide à cette étape avancée de la guerre a été jugée inutile même par un grand nombre de personnes qui admettaient que nos attaques précédentes étaient aussi justifiées que toutes les autres opérations de guerre. If both were obscured, they would bomb the centre of Dresden using H2X radar. Selon Gert Bürgel[41], les témoignages entendus et les matériaux de travail de la commission sont inaccessibles, couverts par le secret et ne peuvent donc pas être l'objet d'étude critique. 3,0 sur 5 étoiles bon film de guerre. [36] Taylor writes that an official 1942 guide to the city described it as "one of the foremost industrial locations of the Reich" and in 1944 the German Army High Command's Weapons Office listed 127 medium-to-large factories and workshops that were supplying the army with materiel. Cette thèse est notamment défendue par Jacques Pauwels[10]. Søgning på “bombardement” i Den Danske Ordbog. Sont accessibles principalement[42] le rapport final (Abschlussbericht) sur Internet; le projet Mathildenstrasse, étude d'une rue-témoin du centre-ville[43], et l'ouvrage publié par l'Institut Hannah Arendt de Dresde. Le La ligne de chemin de fer allant à Pirna. À l'inverse, des études de l'USAF insistent sur les demandes répétées des Soviétiques de bombardements sur les nœuds ferroviaires de l'Est de l'Allemagne pour faciliter la progression de l'Armée rouge[11]. Attacks on cities like any other act of war are intolerable unless they are strategically justified. By the end of 1945 he had completed almost 200 drawings, which he transferred to woodcuts following the war. [38], The US Air Force Historical Division wrote a report in response to the international concern about the bombing that remained classified until December 1978. Le phosphore blanc fut largement crédité par les Alliés d'avoir empêché de nombreuses attaques de l'infanterie allemande et d'avoir créé de gros dégâts dans les troupes ennemies lors de la dernière partie de la Seconde Guerre mondiale. Il détruisit presque entièrement la ville allemande de Dresde, dans le cadre d'un bombardement combiné en bomber stream. [85], According to official German report Tagesbefehl (Order of the Day) no. The scale of the destruction in Dresden was some of the most horrific of the air war in Europe, and the attack has been condemned as a war crime. The industrial plants of Dresden played no significant role in German industry at this stage in the war". If, however it is also a startling one, this is probably less the result of widespread understanding of the nuance of international law and more because in the popular mind 'war criminal', like 'paedophile' or 'terrorist', has developed into a moral rather than a legal categorisation". [16] On 4 March, Das Reich, a weekly newspaper founded by Goebbels, published a lengthy article emphasizing the suffering and destruction of a cultural icon, without mentioning any damage the attacks had caused to the German war effort. PH 2/1 Bombardementskrone Glas Overskærm m Balanceringe Her har du mulighed for at købe en ny glas overskærm til din PH 2/1 Bombardementskrone. Marshall's tribunal declared that no extraordinary decision was made to single out Dresden (e.g. Alternatively, the report warned that the Germans might hold out until November if they could prevent the Soviets from taking Silesia. Le bombardement de Dresde eut lieu du 13 au 15 février 1945, selon les principes de la directive du ministère de l'Aviation du gouvernement britannique sur le bombardement de zone du 14 février 1942, devenue avec l'USAAF la directive de Casablanca en 1943.Il détruisit presque entièrement la ville allemande de Dresde, dans le cadre d'un bombardement combiné en bomber stream. In response, Portal, who was in Yalta, asked Bottomley to send him a list of objectives to discuss with the Soviets. The tonnage and types of bombs listed in the service records of the Dresden raid were comparable to (or less than) throw weights of bombs dropped in other air attacks carried out in 1945. Le 25 février, une nouvelle note paraissait, accompagnée de photos d'enfants brûlés, sous le titre Dresde - Massacre de Réfugiés et indiquant que 200 000 personnes étaient mortes.[réf. Une utilisation massive permet de provoquer un Feuersturm, un embrasement généralisé de l'air détruisant de larges surfaces, comme lors des bombardements stratégiques durant la Seconde Guerre mondiale en Allemagne et au Japon. President Franklin Roosevelt (1882-1945), British Prime Minister Winston Churchill (1874-1965) and Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin (1878-1953)met at Yalta in the USSR and compromised on their visions of the postwar world. My mother covered us with wet blankets and coats she found in a water tub. Les bombes incendiaires sont utilisées comme armes de guerre. The Albertstadt, in the north of Dresden, had remarkable military facilities that the bombings failed to hit. La ville (629 713 habitants en 1939) comprenait en effet plusieurs gares et centralisait des réseaux téléphoniques vitaux pour le front de l'Est ; en raison des circonstances, elle aurait été intégrée tardivement au projet opération Thunderclap (de) en août 1944 qui proposait originairement de frapper Berlin[5] de manière décisive[6]. [d] Historian Götz Bergander, an eyewitness to the raids, found no reports on strafing for 13–15 February by any pilots or the German military and police. Ainsi la RAF ne disposait même pas de carte précise de la ville. Un bombardement, à plusieurs milliers de km de la ligne de front, est toujours un acte politique. [53][54], The Lancasters crossed into French airspace near the Somme, then into Germany just north of Cologne. Le bombardement de Dresde eut lieu du 13 au 15 février 1945, selon les principes de la directive du ministère de l'Aviation du gouvernement britannique sur le bombardement de zone du 14 février 1942, devenue avec l'USAAF la directive de Casablanca (en) en 1943. [41], The USAF report also states that two of Dresden's traffic routes were of military importance: north-south from Germany to Czechoslovakia, and east–west along the central European uplands. We saw the burning street, the falling ruins and the terrible firestorm. Although the city had been sealed off by the Wehrmacht to prevent looting, Rudolph was granted a special permit to enter and carry out his work, as he would be during the Russian occupation as well. En lire plus. The feeling, such as there is, over Dresden, could be easily explained by any psychiatrist. He then added in an offhand remark that the raid also helped destroy "what is left of German morale." Voir les 6 commentaires critiques › pierre. [112][113][114] This was completed on 1 April 1945: ...the moment has come when the question of the so called 'area-bombing' of German cities should be reviewed from the point of view of our own interests. [124] The society is committed to reconstructing the historic city centre as much as possible. The RAF also had an advantage over the Germans in the field of electronic radar countermeasures. At 21:59 the Local Air Raid Leadership confirmed that the bombers were in the area of Dresden-Pirna. See reviews & details on a wide selection of Blu-ray & DVDs, both new & used. Amazon.ca - Buy Dresde Apocalypse at a low price; free shipping on qualified orders. Dans la nuit du 13 au 14 février 1945, la ville de Dresde est victime du plus brutal bombardement aérien de la Seconde Guerre mondiale (à l'exception de Tokyo, Hiroshima et Nagasaki). They failed to hit the marshalling yards in the Friedrichstadt district and, as in the previous raid, their ordnance was scattered over a wide area. Le recensement des survivants restés sur place, selon le décompte du 30 avril 1945, deux mois après l'attaque, fait état de 368 519 personnes[21]. [172], Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}51°2′N 13°44′E / 51.033°N 13.733°E / 51.033; 13.733, British/American air raids on a city in Germany, RAF strategic bombing during the Second World War, U.S. Air Force Historical Division report. [68], Strafing of civilians has become a traditional part of the oral history of the raids, since a March 1945 article in the Nazi-run weekly newspaper Das Reich claimed this had occurred. Proponents of this position argue that the devastation from firebombing was greater than anything that could be justified by military necessity alone, and this establishes a prima facie case. Le 28 mars 1945, Winston Churchill s'interrogea dans une note d'état major sur l'opportunité de ce bombardement[18]. The groups that followed the 303rd (92nd, 306th, 379th, 384th and 457th) also found Dresden obscured by clouds, and they too used H2X. La dernière modification de cette page a été faite le 7 novembre 2020 à 17:25. 17 juin 2019 - Découvrez le tableau "Dresde" de gerald sur Pinterest. [152], German author Günter Grass is one of several intellectuals and commentators who have also called the bombing a war crime.[153]. [137], According to the USAFHD, there were 110 factories and 50,000 workers supporting the German war effort in Dresden at the time of the raid. In that sense it is an absolutely exemplary tragedy for the horrors of 20th century warfare and a symbol of destruction".[129]. [13] An example can be found in the extremist nationalist party Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands (NPD). Dresde 1945 on Amazon.com. By this point in the war, the Luftwaffe was severely hampered by a shortage of both pilots and aircraft fuel; the German radar system was also degraded, lowering the warning time to prepare for air attacks. 117–9. In 1990, after the fall of the Berlin Wall, a group of prominent Dresdeners formed an international appeal known as the "Call from Dresden" to request help in rebuilding the Lutheran Frauenkirche, the destruction of which had over the years become a symbol of the bombing. "[23] He mentioned that aircraft diverted to such raids should not be taken away from the current primary tasks of destroying oil production facilities, jet aircraft factories, and submarine yards. Du 13 au 15 février 1945 suivant le plan « Bomber Harris* » du boucher Harris les bombardiers de la Royal Air Force et de l’U.S. The Allied bombing of Hamburg during World War II included numerous attacks on civilians and civic infrastructure. The next set of aircraft to leave England were twin-engined Mosquito marker planes, which would identify target areas and drop 1,000-pound (450 kg) target indicators (TIs)"[50] that created a red glow for the bombers to aim at. Contrairement aux autres grandes villes, il n'y avait donc pas eu de plan étendu de protection avec grands abris anti-aériens[17]. ... We must see to it that our attacks do no more harm to ourselves in the long run than they do to the enemy's war effort. Phrases like "Bomber-Harris, do it again! Le 16 février, le ministère de la Propagande publiait un communiqué de presse qui dessinait la ligne générale de la propagande nazie : Dresde n'avait aucune industrie de guerre, n'était qu'une ville de culture et d'hôpitaux. [57] The first bombs were released at 22:13, the last at 22:28, the Lancasters delivering 881.1 tons of bombs, 57% high explosive, 43% incendiaries. [60] The Pathfinders therefore decided to expand the target, dropping flares on either side of the firestorm, including the Hauptbahnhof, the main train station, and the Großer Garten, a large park, both of which had escaped damage during the first raid. Des centaines de milliers de réfugiés fuyant l’avance de l’armée rouge affluaient vers Dresde espérant y trouver un peu de sécurité. De var, af Røde Kors, blevet forsikret om, at de ville være i sikkerhed, selv mens de jødiske generaler planlagde at myrde mændene. Le 13 février 1945 environ 400 000 réfugiés allemands (femmes, enfants et vieillards) périssaient à Dresde sous les « bombes libératrices » au phosphore des alliées. [136], A report by the U.S. Air Force Historical Division (USAFHD) analyzed the circumstances of the raid and concluded that it was militarily necessary and justified, based on the following points:[7], The first point regarding the legitimacy of the raid depends on two claims: first, that the railyards subjected to American precision bombing were an important logistical target, and that the city was also an important industrial centre. Everyday low prices and free delivery on eligible orders. In a 1965 letter to The Guardian, Irving later adjusted his estimates even higher, "almost certainly between 100,000 and 250,000", but all these figures were shortly found to be inflated: Irving finally published a correction in The Times in a 1966 letter to the editor[164] lowering it to 25,000, in line with subsequent scholarship. It is not possible to describe! L'évaluation du nombre de morts a beaucoup fluctué. The basket with our twins covered with wet cloths was snatched up out of my mother's hands and we were pushed upstairs by the people behind us. By this time, ten of the Lancasters were out of service, leaving 244 to continue to Dresden. [131] As such, "grossly inflated"[5] casualty figures have been promulgated over the years, many based on a figure of over 200,000 deaths quoted in a forged version of the casualty report, Tagesbefehl No. Baggrund og mål for angrebet. [47] Other raids were carried out that night to confuse German air defences. There were 200,000 incendiaries in all, with the high-explosive bombs ranging in weight from 500 to 4,000 pounds (230 to 1,810 kg)—the so-called two-ton cookies,[52] also known as "blockbusters", because they could destroy an entire large building or street. I tilknytning til jernbanen var det eneste stadigt fungerende jernbaneværksted på Hauptbahnhof i Dresden. Harris quotes as his source the Public Records Office ATH/DO/4B quoted by Lord Zuckerman "From Apes to Warlords" p. 352. sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFGrayling2006 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFGrayling2006b (, United Newsreel on the bombing of Dresden, Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force, Aerial bombardment and international law § International law up to 1945, Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, blocked a demonstration of far-right organizations, Slaughterhouse-Five or The Children's Crusade: A Duty-Dance with Death, Operation Gomorrah campaign against Hamburg. Des milliers de réfugiés qui fuient l’avancée de l’Armée rouge et de soldats blessés, qui sont soignés dans 25 hôpitaux, s’entassent dans la ville dont il est difficile de déterminer précisément le nombre d'habitants.